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    2020年十大科技趋向瞻望
    宣布时候:2020-01-03 13:53:21   来历:本站首创   点击量:
    Trend No 1. Hyperautomation
    Automation uses technology to automate tasks that once required humans.
    Hyperautomation deals with the application of advanced technologies, including artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML), to increasingly automate processes and augment humans. Hyperautomation extends across a range of tools that can be automated, but also refers to the sophistication of the automation (i.e., discover, analyze, design, automate, measure, monitor, reassess.)
    Hyperautomation often results in the creation of a digital twin of the organization
    As no single tool can replace humans, hyperautomation today involves a combination of tools, including robotic process automation (RPA), intelligent business management software (iBPMS) and AI, with a goal of increasingly AI-driven decision making. 
    Although not the main goal, hyperautomation often results in the creation of a  of the organization (DTO), allowing organizations to visualize how functions, processes and key performance indicators interact to drive value. The DTO then becomes an integral part of the hyperautomation process, providing real-time, continuous intelligence about the organization and driving significant business opportunities. 
    趋向1、超主动化
    主动化操纵手艺使曾须要人的使命主动化。
    超主动化触及到******手艺的操纵,包含野生智能(AI)和机械进修(ML),以愈来愈主动化的进程和增添人类。超主动化扩展了一系列能够或许或许主动化的工具,但也指主动化的庞杂性(即发明、阐发、设想、主动化、丈量、监控、从头评价)
    因为不一种工具能够或许或许代替人类,现在的超主动化触及多种工具的组合,包含机械人流程主动化(RPA)、智能营业办理软件(iBPMS)和野生智能,其方针是愈来愈多的野生智能驱动决议计划。
    固然超主动化不是首要方针,但它凡是会致使构造的数字孪生兄弟(DTO)的建立,使构造能够或许或允许视化功效、流程和关头机能目标若何彼此感化以驱动代价。而后,DTO成为超主动化进程的一个构成局部,供给有关构造的及时、延续的谍报,并鞭策严重的贸易机遇。
    Trend No. 2: Multiexperience
    Multiexperience replaces technology-literate people with people-literate technology. In this trend, the traditional idea of a computer evolves from a single point of interaction to include multisensory and multitouchpoint interfaces like wearables and advanced computer sensors. 
    For example, Domino’s Pizza created an experience beyond app-based ordering that includes autonomous vehicles, a pizza tracker and smart speaker communications. 
    In the future, this trend will become what’s called an ambient experience, but currently multiexperience focuses on immersive experiences that use augmented reality (AR), virtual (VR), mixed reality, multichannel human-machine interfaces and sensing technologies. The combination of these technologies can be used for a simple AR overlay or a fully immersive VR experience. 
     
    趋向2:多重休会
    多重休会用人们熟习的手艺代替了懂手艺的人。在这类趋向下,传统的计较机观点从单一的交互点成长到包含多传感器和多点接口,如可穿着装备和******的计较机传感器。
    比方,Domino的Pizza缔造了一种超出基于操纵法式的订购的休会,包含自立车辆、Pizza跟踪器和智能扬声器通讯。
    在将来,这类趋向将成为所谓的情况休会,但今朝的多休会偏重于操纵加强实际(AR)、假造(VR)、夹杂实际、多通道人机界面和传感手艺的沉醉式休会。这些手艺的连系能够或许或许用于一个简略的AR笼盖或一个******沉醉式的假造实际休会。
     
    Trend No. 3: Democratization
    Democratization of technology means providing people with easy access to technical or business expertise without extensive (and costly) training. It focuses on four key areas — application development, data and analytics, design and knowledge — and is often referred to as “citizen access,” which has led to the rise of citizen data scientists, citizen programmers and more. 
    For example, democratization would enable developers to generate data models without having the skills of a data scientist. They would instead rely on AI-driven development to generate code and automate testing. 
    趋向三:进步化
    手艺的进步化象征着为人们供给轻易取得手艺或贸易专业常识的机遇,而无需停止普遍(且高贵)的培训。它专一于四个关头范畴——操纵法式开辟、数据和阐发、设想和常识——凡是被称为“国民拜候”,这致使了国民数据迷信家、国民法式员等的突起。
    比方,进步化能够或许或许使开辟职员在不具备数据迷信家手艺的情况下天生数据模子。相反,他们将依靠野生智能驱动的开辟来天生代码和主动化测试。
     
    Trend No. 4: Human augmentation
    Human augmentation is the use of technology to enhance a person’s cognitive and physical experiences.
    Physical augmentation changes an inherent physical capability by implanting or hosting a technology within or on the body. For example, the automotive or mining industries use wearables to improve worker safety. In other industries, such as retail and travel, wearables are used to increase worker productivity. 
    Physical augmentation falls into four main categories: Sensory augmentation (hearing, vision, perception), appendage and biological function augmentation (exoskeletons, prosthetics), brain augmentation (implants to treat seizures) and genetic augmentation (somatic gene and cell therapy). 
    Cognitive augmentation enhances a human’s ability to think and make better decisions, for example, exploiting information and applications to enhance learning or new experiences. Cognitive augmentation also includes some technology in the brain augmentation category as they are physical implants that deal with cognitive reasoning. 
    Human augmentation carries a range of cultural and ethical implications. For example, using CRISPR technologies to augment genes has significant ethical implications. 
    趋向4:人体加强
    人类加强是操纵手艺来加强一小我的认知和身材休会。
    物理加强经由进程在身材内或身材上植入或托管手艺来转变固有的物理才能。比方,汽车或采矿业操纵可穿着装备来进步工人的宁静。在其余行业,如批发业和游览业,可穿着装备被用来进步工人的出产力。
    物理加强分为四大类:感受加强(听觉、视觉、知觉)、从属物和生物功效加强(外骨骼、假肢)、大脑加强(医治癫痫的植入物)和基因加强(体细胞基因和细胞医治)。
    认知加强进步了人类思虑和作出更好决议的才能,比方,操纵信息和操纵法式来加强进修或新休会。认知加强还包含大脑加强类的一些手艺,因为它们是处置认知推理的物理植入物。
    人类的增添具备一系列的文明和伦理寄义。比方,操纵CRISPR手艺扩增基因具备严重的伦理意思。
     
    Trend No. 5: Transparency and traceability
    The evolution of technology is creating a trust crisis. As consumers become more aware of how  is being collected and used, organizations are also recognizing the increasing liability of storing and gathering the data. 
    Additionally, AI and ML are increasingly used to make decisions in place of humans, evolving the trust crisis and driving the need for ideas like explainable AI and AI governance. 
    This trend requires a focus on six key elements of trust: Ethics, integrity, openness, accountability, competence and consistency. 
    Legislation, like the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), is being enacted around the world, driving evolution and laying the ground rules for organizations. 
    趋向5:通明与追溯性
    科技的成长正在制作一场信赖危急。跟着花费者愈来愈熟悉到他们的数据是若何被搜集和操纵的,构造也熟悉到存储和搜集数据的义务愈来愈大。
    另外,野生智能和野生智能愈来愈多地被用来代替人类做出决议计划,演变出信赖危急,并鞭策对可诠释野生智能和野生智能管理等设法的须要。
    这一趋向请求把******放在信赖的六个关头因素上:品德、朴重、开放、问责、才能和分歧性。
    立法,像欧盟的普通数据掩护条例(GDPR),正在天下各地颁发,鞭策演变,并为构造拟定根基法则。
     
    Trend No. 6: The empowered edge
     is a topology where information processing and content collection and delivery are placed closer to the sources of the information, with the idea that keeping traffic local and distributed will reduce latency. This includes all the technology on the (IoT). Empowered edge looks at how these devices are increasing and forming the foundations for smart spaces, and moves key applications and services closer to the people and devices that use them.
    By 2023, there could be more than 20 times as many smart devices at the edge of the network as in conventional IT roles. 
    趋向6:边缘计较
    边缘计较是一种将信息处置、内容搜集和通报放在靠近信息源的地位的拓扑布局,其思惟是坚持通讯量的本地和散布式将削减提早。这包含物联网(IoT)上的一切手艺。受权边缘着眼于这些装备是若何增添和构成智能空间的根本,并将关头操纵法式和bob官方下载地址 更靠近操纵的人和装备。
    到2023年,搜集边缘的智能装备数目能够或许是传统IT脚色的20多倍。
     
    Trend No. 7: The distributed cloud
    Distributed cloud refers to the distribution of public cloud services to locations outside the cloud provider’s physical , but which are still controlled by the provider. In distributed cloud, the cloud provider is responsible for all aspects of cloud service architecture, delivery, operations, governance and updates. The evolution from centralized public cloud to distributed public cloud ushers in a new era of . 
    Distributed cloud allows data centers to be located anywhere. This solves both technical issues like latency and also regulatory challenges like data sovereignty. It also offers the benefits of a public cloud service alongside the benefits of a private, local cloud. 
    趋向7:散布式云
    散布式云是指将大众云bob官方下载地址 散发到云供给商物理数据中间之外的地位,但这些地位仍由供给商节制。在散布式云中,云供给商担任云bob官方下载地址 架构、托付、操纵、管理和更新的一切方面。从集合式大众云到散布式大众云的演进,开启了云计较的新时期。
    散布式云允许数据中间位于任何处所。这既处置了提早等手艺题目,也处置了数据主权等羁系挑衅。它还供给了大众云bob官方下载地址 的益处和公有本地云的益处。
     
    Trend No. 8: Autonomous things
    Autonomous things, which include drones, , ships and appliances,  to perform tasks usually done by humans. This technology operates on a spectrum of intelligence ranging from semiautonomous to fully autonomous and across a variety of environments including air, sea and land.
    While currently autonomous things mainly exist in controlled environments, like in a mine or warehouse, they will eventually evolve to include open public spaces. Autonomous things will also move from stand-alone to collaborative swarms, such as the drone swarms used during the Winter Olympic Games in 2018.
    However, autonomous things cannot replace the human brain and operate most effectively with a narrowly defined, well-scoped purpose. 
     
    趋向8:主动化
    自立的工具,包含无人机、机械人、船只和装备,操纵野生智能履行凡是由人类实现的使命。这项手艺的智能规模从半自立到******自立,逾越包含氛围、海洋和海洋在内的各类情况。
    固然今朝自治的事物首要存在于受控的情况中,比方在矿山或堆栈中,但它们***终将演变为开放的大众空间。自立的工具也将从自力的蜂群转向合作的蜂群,比方2018年冬奥会时期操纵的无人机蜂群。
    但是,自立的事物不能代替人脑,也不能以广义的、规模明白的目标***有用地运作。
    Trend No. 9: Practical blockchain
    is a type of distributed ledger, an expanding chronologically ordered list of cryptographically signed, irrevocable transactional records shared by all participants in a network. 
    Blockchain also allows parties to trace assets back to their origin, which is beneficial for traditional assets, but also paves the way for other uses such as tracing food-borne illnesses back to the original supplier. It also allows two or more parties who don’t know each other to safely interact in a digital environment and exchange value without the need for a centralized authority. 
    The complete blockchain model includes five elements: A shared and distributed ledger, immutable and traceable ledger, encryption, tokenization and a distributed public consensus mechanism. However, blockchain remains immature for enterprise deployments due to a range of technical issues including poor scalability and interoperability.
    Enterprise blockchains today take a practical approach and implement only some of the elements of a complete blockchain by making the ledger independent of individual applications and participants and replicating the ledger across a distributed network to create an authoritative record of significant events. Everyone with permissioned access sees the same information, and integration is simplified by having a single shared blockchain. Consensus is handled through more traditional private models.
    In the future, true blockchain or “blockchain complete” will have the potential to transform industries, and eventually the economy, as complementary technologies such as AI and the IoT begin to integrate alongside blockchain. This expands the type of participants to include machines, which will be able to exchange a variety of assets — from money to real estate. For example, a car would be able to negotiate insurance prices directly with the insurance company based on data gathered by its sensors. 
    趋向9:适用区块链
    区块链是一种散布式帐本,是一种定时候挨次扩展的列表,由搜集合一切到场者同享的加密署名、不可撤消的买卖记实。
    区块链还允许各方追溯资产的来历,这对传统资产是无益的,但也为其余用处摊平了途径,如追溯食物传布疾病的原始供给商。它还允许不熟悉对方的两个或多个当事方在数字情况中宁静地交互并互换代价,而不须要集合的******机构。
    区块链还允许各方追溯资产的来历,这对传统资产是无益的,但也为其余用处摊平了途径,如追溯食物传布疾病的原始供给商。它还允许不熟悉对方的两个或多个当事方在数字情况中宁静地交互并互换代价,而不须要集合的******机构。完全的区块链模子包含五个因素:同享和散布式帐本、不可变和可追踪帐本、加密、标记化和散布式公家共鸣机制。但是,因为一系列手艺题目,包含可扩展性和互操纵性差,区块链对企业安排来讲依然不成熟。
    明天的企业区块链采用了一种适用的方式,经由进程使分类账自力于单个操纵法式和到场者,并经由进程散布式搜集复制分类账,以建立严重事务的******记实,从而只实现完全区块链的某些元素。每一个具有允许拜候权限的人都能看到不异的信息,而经由进程具有一个同享的区块链,集成变得简略。共鸣是经由进程更传统的私家形式来处置的
    将来,跟着野生智能和物联网等互补手艺起头与区块链并驾齐驱,真实的区块链或“区块链实现”将有潜力转变财产,***终转变经济。这扩展了到场者的范例,包含机械,它将能够或许或许互换各类资产-从货泉到房地产。比方,一辆汽车能够或许或许按照传感器搜集的数据间接与保险公司协商保险******。
    Trend No. 10: AI security 
    Evolving technologies such as hyperautomation and autonomous things offer transformational opportunities in the business world. However, they also create  in new potential points of attack. Security teams must address these challenges and be aware of how AI will impact the security space. 
    AI security has three key perspectives:
    1. Protecting AI-powered systems: Securing AI training data, training pipelines and ML models. 
    2. Leveraging AI to enhance security defense: Using ML to understand patterns, uncover attacks and automate parts of the cybersecurity processes. 
    3. Anticipating nefarious use of AI by attackers: Identifying attacks and defending against them. 
     
    趋向10:野生智能宁静
    不时成长的手艺,如超主动化和自立的工具供给了贸易天下的变更机遇。但是,它们也会在新的潜伏进犯点上形成宁静缝隙。宁静团队必须应答这些挑衅,并熟悉到野生智能将若何影响宁静空间。
     
    野生智能宁静有三个关头方面:
    1.掩护野生智能体系:掩护野生智能培训数据、培训管道和ML模子。
    2.操纵野生智能加强宁静进攻:操纵ML领会形式、发明进犯并主动化局部搜集宁静进程。
    3.预期进犯者歹意操纵野生智能:辨认进犯并进攻进犯。
     
    援用至美國資訊科技研讨與顧問公司Gartner,發佈《2020十大科技趨勢報告》